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What is a Hall sensor?

A Hall effect sensor (or simply Hall sensor) is a type of sensor which detects the presence and magnitude of a magnetic field using the Hall effect.

A Hall device, also commonly referred to as a Hall effect sensor, is a device used to measure magnetic fields. It is commonly used in electric motors to determine the position and speed of the rotor, as well as the current supplied to the motor.

In electric motors, a Hall device is usually mounted near the rotor and it measures the magnetic field generated by the stator of the motor. A Hall device consists of a thin piece of semiconductor material that is electrically connected at both ends. When a magnetic field is present, it causes a deflection of the electron motion within the semiconductor material. This deflection is detected by the electrical connection, and the strength of the magnetic field can be determined by the magnitude of the deflection.

Functions of Hall sensors

Hall effect sensors can be used to detect the strength and direction of a magnetic field generated by a permanent magnet or electromagnet. The Hall device senses the strength and polarity of the magnetic field and sends a signal to the motor's control circuitry, indicating the position of the rotor.

  • The Hall sensor controls the position and speed of the rotor. As the Hall sensor sends information, the control circuitry adjusts the current supplied to the motor to maintain the desired speed and position of the rotor based on the information sent by the Hall sensor. For example, if the rotor falls behind its desired position, the control circuit will increase the current supplied to the motor to accelerate the rotor and catch up to its desired position.
  • In addition to their role in controlling rotor position and speed, Hall devices can be used to protect motors from overcurrent conditions. When the current supplied to the motor exceeds a certain threshold, the Hall device senses an increase in magnetic field strength and sends a signal to the control circuit to shut off power to the motor to prevent damage.


Overall, the Hall device is an important part of the motor because it helps ensure that the rotor spins at the desired speed and position, and helps protect the motor from damage.

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